Bibliographic information (as well as keywords, notes, and other relevant information) is entered into separate fields in each Reference Manager reference. By storing the pieces of bibliographic data in different fields, Reference Manager can later rearrange the elements to conform to various bibliographic formats (such as APA or MLA).


Note: Reference Manager allows customization of database including field and field label information.  Some fields mentioned below may not be available for viewing or editing. Additionally, some fields may not use the same field labels.


Special bibliographic formatting and punctuation should not be included when you enter reference data into Reference Manager.


For example, you do not need to put quotes around titles, italicize journal names, or include the abbreviation "Vol." along with volume numbers. Enter only the raw data, and leave the formatting to Reference Manager.


NOTE: There are a few exceptions to this punctuation rule, notably in the Author, Editor, and Edition fields. Read on for details.

Author and Editor Names

The following information about Author and Editor fields applies to the following "Generic" field names: Authors, Primary; Authors, Secondary; and Authors, Series.


Author names must be entered with the last name followed by a comma and the first name and middle name. Multiple authors are delimited with a semicolon. Some examples of authors names are:



Smith, Paul Roy



Reference Manager can abbreviate first and middle names, so for maximum flexibility enter whole names whenever possible. If you are entering initials instead of full names, be sure to type a period between initials, (for example "Fisher, J.O."), otherwise Reference Manager interprets the initials as a single name: "Jo." Author fields are linked to a term list for easy and consistent data entry.


NOTE: You may enter up to 255 names in each of these fields. Each name can be up to 255 characters.


Using "et al." or Similar Abbreviations

Enter all author names for a particular reference. Reference Manager will truncate the list of authors with "et al." or "and others" as required by the bibliographic style.

Anonymous Works

If a reference has no author, you should leave the Author field blank. Do not enter "Anonymous." The style that you use to format the bibliography determines how anonymous references are treated.


Note that if a work is published with "Anonymous" printed on the title page, most style guides request that "Anonymous" be entered as though it were the author name.

Corporate Authors

When entering corporate authors, enter them just as they should appear:

U.S. Department of Agriculture

Apple Computer Inc.

Complex Author Names

For multiple-word last names, like Charles de Gaulle, enter the name with the last name first, such as:

de Gaulle, Charles


Entering a name this way ensures that both words "de" and "Gaulle" will format as the last name.


Enter authors with titles, such as "Jr." or "III", as Last, First, Title. For example, "Alfred Smith Jr." must be entered as:

Smith, Alfred, Jr.

Date, Primary and Secondary

The Date, Primary and Date, Secondary fields can be formatted as a four digit year, or using MM/DD/YYYY. By default, MM/ DD/YYYY is selected.


To toggle between these formats, click the Date icon next to the Date, Primary or Date, Secondary field name. This is useful when you wish to use the four digit year format for the primary date and the other format for the secondary date field.


Use the Other subfield (part of the date field) for additional date information, such as:

Notes and Abstract

Use the Notes field to store personal reminders, such as the location of a quotation in a book or the quotation itself. Use the Abstract field for a brief description of the contents of the work.


Use the Keywords field to store keywords that you want to associate with the reference. The Keywords field is linked to a term list for easy and consistent data entry.


You can restrict a search to just the Keywords field, so the terms you enter into this field can be used to later retrieve the references when using Reference Manager's Search References command. Multiple keywords in this field are delimited automatically with semicolons.


Use the Reprint field to indicate the reprint status for the reference.


This option provides a date field to indicate when the request was made.

Start and End Page Fields

A start page and end page can be entered in their respective fields. The style used to create the bibliography can change the page numbers to be either full or abbreviated page ranges, or show just the first page.


Considerations when entering page numbers are:

Periodical, Magazine, or Journal Names

The Periodical (or Magazine or Journal Name) field is automatically set up to work with the Periodicals term list associated with the Reference Manager database.  Type the full Periodical name to ensure that it will either match an existing Periodical in the database's term list, or be added as a new Periodical to the term list.


The text of the Edition field is not modified by Reference Manager for your bibliographies, so be sure to enter "1st," "2nd," and so on for this field if that is what you need in your bibliography.


ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) and ISBN (International Standard Book Number) are codes used to identify a particular publication. An ISSN number would refer to an entire journal (such as the Journal of Virology), and an ISBN would refer to a particular book.


It is most useful if you are importing reference data or retrieving references directly from an online source. These numbers help to identify a specific publication if you need to order it or locate it.

Linkable Fields

Reference Manager provides several fields allowing you to link to URLs, PDF files, full-text documents, other related files, and image files:


To link to a URL:

When the destination is a Web address, simply type or paste the URL into this field. To enter multiple URLs, separate them with a semicolon.


To jump to a URL or file:

Valid URLs and linked files appear as click-able links in blue and underlined text.